Voters Say Those on the Other Side ‘Don’t Get’ Them. Here’s What They Want Them To Know
Two lines of evidence indicate that there exists a reciprocal inhibitory relationship between opposed brain networks. First, most attention-demanding cognitive tasks activate a stereotypical set of brain areas, known as the task-positive network and simultaneously deactivate a different set of brain regions, commonly referred to as the task negative or default mode network. Second, functional connectivity analyses show that these same opposed networks are anti-correlated in the resting state. We hypothesize that these reciprocally inhibitory effects reflect two incompatible cognitive modes, each of which is directed towards understanding the external world. Thus, engaging one mode activates one set of regions and suppresses activity in the other. We test this hypothesis by identifying two types of problem-solving task which, on the basis of prior work, have been consistently associated with the task positive and task negative regions: tasks requiring social cognition, i.e., reasoning about the mental states of other persons, and tasks requiring physical cognition, i.e., reasoning about the causal/mechanical properties of inanimate objects. Social and mechanical reasoning tasks were presented to neurologically normal participants during fMRI. Each task type was presented using both text and video clips. Regardless of presentation modality, we observed clear evidence of reciprocal suppression: social tasks deactivated regions associated with mechanical reasoning and mechanical tasks deactivated regions associated with social reasoning. These findings are not explained by self-referential processes, task engagement, mental simulation, mental time travel or external vs. internal attention, all factors previously hypothesized to explain default mode network activity. Analyses of resting state data revealed a close match between the regions our tasks identified as reciprocally inhibitory and regions of maximal anti-correlation in the resting state. These results indicate the reciprocal inhibition is not attributable to constraints inherent in the tasks, but is neural in origin. Hence, there is a physiological constraint on our ability to simultaneously engage two distinct cognitive modes. Further work is needed to more precisely characterize these opposing cognitive domains.
A new study shows that empathy may drive rats to help each other. The finding gives insight into the biological roots of our urge to assist others in need. The model the researchers developed will also provide an opportunity for further study.
This lecture by Prof. V.S. Ramachandran (University of California, San Diego) will focus on body image and mind body interactions.
This year’s prestigious University of Glasgow Gifford Lecture Series will feature three talks from V.S. Ramachandran, the Director of the Centre for Brain and Cognition and Distinguished Professor with the Psychology Department and Neurosciences Program at the University of California.
Founded in 1887 by the bequest of Lord Gifford, the annual Gifford Lecture Series was established to promote, advance and diffuse the study of Natural Theology in the widest sense of that term. The focus of this series will be ‘Body and Mind; Insights from Neuroscience.’
Ramachandran said: “Monday’s lecture will focus on body image and mind body interactions, while Wednesday’s lecture will deal with understanding higher brain functions through studies of synesthesia and other types of intersensory interactions, including discoveries of mirror neurons. I will also touch on the important deeper philosophical implications that surround these subject areas.”
Dr Susan Stuart, Senior Lecturer in Philosophy at the University of Glasgow said: “It is our great pleasure that Vilayanur S. Ramachandran has agreed to present the 2012 Gifford lectures at the University of Glasgow. Ramachandran is one of the world’s leading neuroscientists; he has been responsible for groundbreaking work in the fields of behavioural neurology and psychophysics.
“His work on autism, visual processing, and synaesthesia is truly pioneering and during his career he has carried out marvellous work on understanding and treating phantom limb disorders as well as linking between temporal lobe epilepsy and hyper-religiosity, a field now known as ‘neurotheology’ or ‘spiritual neuroscience’.”
V.S. Ramachandran is Director of the Center for Brain and Cognition and Distinguished Professor with the Psychology Department and Neurosciences Program at the University of California, San Diego, and Adjunct Professor of Biology at the Salk Institute. Ramachandran initially trained as a doctor and subsequently obtained a Ph.D. from Trinity College at the University of Cambridge. Ramachandran’s early work was on visual perception but he is best known for his experiments in behavioral neurology which, despite their apparent simplicity, have had a profound impact on the way we think about the brain. He has been called “The Marco Polo of neuroscience” by Richard Dawkins and “The modern Paul Broca” by Eric Kandel.
In 2005 he was awarded the Henry Dale Medal and elected to an honorary life membership by the Royal Instituion of Great Britain, where he also gave a Friday evening discourse (joining the ranks of Michael Faraday, Thomas Huxley, Humphry Davy, and dozens of Nobel Laureates). His other honours and awards include fellowships from All Souls College, Oxford, and from Stanford University (Hilgard Visiting Professor); the Presidential Lecture Award from the American Academy of Neurology, two honorary doctorates, the annual Ramon Y Cajal award from the International Neuropsychiatry Society, and the Ariens-Kappers medal from the Royal Netherlands Academy of Sciences. In 2003 he gave the annual BBC Reith lectures and was the first physician/psychologist to give the lectures since they were begun by Bertrand Russel in 1949. In 1995 he gave the Decade of the Brain lecture at the 25th annual (Silver Jubilee) meeting of the Society for Neuroscience. In 2010 he delivered the annual Jawaharlal Nehru memorial lecture in New Delhi, India. Most recently the President of India conferred on him the second highest civilian award and honorific title in India, the Padma Bhushan. And TIME magazine named him on their list of the 100 most influential people in the world.
Ramachandran has published over 180 papers in scientific journals (including five invited review articles in the Scientific American). He is author of the acclaimed book “Phantoms in the Brain” that has been translated into nine languages and formed the basis for a two part series on Channel Four TV (UK) and a 1 hour PBS special in USA. NEWSWEEK magazine has named him a member of “The Century Club” — one of the “hundred most prominent people to watch in the next century.” He has been profiled in the New Yorker Magazine and appeared on the Charlie Rose Show. His new book, “The Tell Tale Brain” was on the New York Times best-seller list.
In addition, Ramachandran has an interest in history and archaeology (see his article on the Indus Valley Code).
Thom Bond, founder New York Center for Nonviolent Communication (NYCNVC), visited Google MTV to discuss the Compassion Course Online (compassioncourse.org). Since 2011, more than 12,000 people in 110 countries have learned to communicate compassionately through this year-long course. As a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC), it grows in participation every year and is now offered in four languages, funded entirely through donations.
Moderated by Earl J. Wagner, Google’s local Compassionate Communication trainer and Google engineer.
Most of us are hungry for skills to improve the quality of our relationships, to deepen our sense of personal empowerment or to simply communicate more effectively. Unfortunately, for centuries our prevailing culture has taught us to think and speak in ways that can actually perpetuate conflict, internal pain and even violence. Nonviolent Communication: A Language of Life partners practical communication and emotional literacy skills with a powerful consciousness and vocabulary to help you create the life you want peacefully.
In this internationally acclaimed book, Marshall Rosenberg offers insightful stories, anecdotes, practical exercises and relationship role-plays that will literally change your approach to communication for the better. Discover how the language you use can strengthen your relationships, build trust, prevent conflicts and heal emotional pain. Revolutionary, yet simple, Nonviolent Communication: A Language of Life offers the most effective tools to reduce violence and create peace simply by changing how we communicate.
Over 1,000,000 copies have been sold. Printed in over 30 languages around the world. Hundreds of certified trainers and hundreds more supporters teach NVC to tens of thousands of people each year in more than 60 countries.
International peacemaker, Marshall B. Rosenberg, Ph.D., is the founder of the Center for Nonviolent Communication, author of Speak Peace in a World of Conflict, Life-Enriching Education, and several booklets.
Create a classroom where students love to learn, and teachers love to teach
In this revolutionary book, Marshall Rosenberg empowers educators to transform schools into life-serving, learning-rich environments that maximize the potential of every student.
Filled with insight, adaptable classroom exercises and role-plays, Life-Enriching Education gives educators practical communication skills to generate mutually respectful classroom relationships. Discover how our language and organizational structures directly impact student potential, trust, self-esteem and student enjoyment in their learning. Rediscover the joy of teaching in a classroom where each person’s needs are respected!
Life-Enriching Education helps educators:
Maximize student potential
Strengthen your classroom community
Resolve and prevent conflicts peacefully
Improve the quality of classroom and school relationships
International peacemaker, Marshall B. Rosenberg, Ph.D., is the founder of the Center for Nonviolent Communication, author of Nonviolent Communication: A Language of Life , Speak Peace in a World of Conflict, and several booklets.
Berkeley Community Television broadcast 22 episodes of the Conflict Hotline, a monthly television show featuring Miki Kashtan and other BayNVC trainers. A Conflict Coach, usually Miki, guided the other trainers through role-plays in order to support callers and other viewers in learning about using NVC for resolving conflicts and for healing. Previously the show was broadcast on KPFA radio. Many people have found this to be an exciting way to bring NVC alive for viewers.
The NYCNVC Compassion Course is the result of my last 28 years as a writer and trainer, and the past 15 years, studying, living and teaching Nonviolent Communication (NVC). It’s my way of making the skills of compassionate living available to anyone, regardless of time and money constraints.
The 2016 Compassion Course (currently in progress) has more than 5,000 participants from over 100 countries. For six years running, this course has proven to be “life-changing”, “fun” and “transformational” (check out the quotes below).
How It Works
Through weekly email messages, the course imparts concepts, stories and practices that empower us to be more compassionate. We learn clear practices that help us and those around us, have more understanding and well-being in our lives (see sample weeks below). The weekly messages explain and demonstrate ways of thinking, speaking and acting that allow us to get through conflict without hurting or hating.
As a global community, we share resources including links and exercises, message forums, conferences and enjoy a sense of connection and expanded learning while preserving personal space and time. The weekly email messages will include access to multiple message boards, access to archived messages, conference recordings, documents, video content, special exercise pages and more.
Why It Works
In the same way that we humans have developed other technologies, the technology of compassion has developed too. This course provides clear, specific ideas and practices to help us experience more compassion, understanding, harmony and fun. That said, it is challenging and calls on our perseverance, practice, focus and dedication.
Through practical steps, the course provides the “how to” of creating more connection, understanding and compassion in our daily lives… a way to create a world we will be happy to leave our children’s children. It is my honor and dream to share this with you for the sixth year. I hope you will join me.
*warm grateful smile*